Category Archives: Europe

The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Part II

The government and the president of Montenegro rejected the election result as invalid and initially refused to recognize Koštunica as the legitimate president of Yugoslavia. After lengthy preliminary talks, however, on November 4, the new cabinet formed by Koštunica after the resignation of Prime Minister Momir Bulatović (SPS; October 10) under Prime Minister Zoran Žižić… Read More »

The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Part I

After the collapse of Yugoslavia, which was established under socialist auspices in 1945/46, Serbia and Montenegro agreed on February 12, 1992 in the Titograd Agreement (now Podgorica) to form a new Yugoslav state (approved by the parliaments of both republics on February 22, 1992; confirmed in a referendum on March 1, 1992 in Montenegro). With… Read More »

Charles University Prague

Charles University in Prague, first university in the Holy Roman Empire; was founded in 1348 by Charles IV. When King Wenceslas IV changed the constitution of the university in favor of the Bohemian nation in 1409 (Kuttenberg decree), this led to the departure of the masters and scholars of other nationalities (and, among other things,… Read More »

Prague Politics, Economy and History

Prague, Czech Praha, capital of the Czech Republic, on the Vltava, with (2019) 1.3 million residents the largest city in the country. Prague lies 176–391 m above sea level, in a wide basin (Prague Basin) on both sides of the Vltava, which flows through the city over a length of 28 km, in the middle… Read More »

Czech Music

Czech music, term for the art and folk music of the Czechs since the middle of the 19th century. Folk music, which is very diverse in landscape, has been documented since the 11th century. Gregorian chant spread with the Roman liturgy; the sacred folk song of the Hussites influenced the songs of the Bohemian Brethren,… Read More »

Czech Republic Business

At the time of the dissolution of Czechoslovakia (1992/93), the Czech Republic held three quarters of the Czechoslovak gross domestic product (GDP). The beginning of the independence of the Czech Republic on January 1, 1993 coincided with the transformation from a planned to a market economy, which began in 1991 with the release of prices,… Read More »

Czechoslovakia (1945-1992)

New beginnings in the state and socio-political transformation (1945–1948) According to indexdotcom, based on this treaty, the social democrat Z. Fierlinger formed a coalition government of democratic socialists, communists and commoners on April 5, 1945 in Košice – in the hinterland of the advancing Soviet troops; v. a. the establishment of a welfare state and… Read More »

Czechoslovakia (1848-1945)

Czechoslovakia, Czech Československo [ t ʃ εsk ɔ sl ɔ vεnsk ɔ ], 1918-92 existing state in Central Europe, officially 1918-39 and 1945-60 Československá republika [ t ʃ εsk ɔ sl ɔ vεnska ː -], abbreviation Czechoslovakia [ t ʃ e ː at yield.epsilon..sub.R], 1960-89 Československá republika socialistická [-stitska ː -], acronym CSSR [tʃ e… Read More »