From 31 December 2012, it is forbidden to sell bulbs filament in France. Since 2008, they are gradually replaced by lamps low consumption.
The filament bulb has the defect of being very energy-intensive, converting 5% of energy electric lighting and losing the rest into heat. It produces light by wearing a tungsten filament, the metal that has the highest point of fusion (3430 ° C), kept in an inert gas or vacuum incandescent.
• Why do we quit bulbs incandescent?
Have a low purchase cost (€1) incandescent bulbs, but they use “4 to 5 times more energy” and have a life of 1000 hours, “6 to 10 times shorter” that a lamp low consumption, according to the agreement signed in 2008 between the Department of ecology, manufacturers and the french distributors, following the decision of the Union European ban gradually selling these bulbs.
Altogether, the use of an incandescent bulb costs 3 to 4 times more than a lamp low consumption. In France, their replacement expected to save 8 billion kWh, equivalent to twice the annual consumption of electricity of the Parisians, and reduce emissions of CO2 of close to one million tonnes annually, provides the Department of ecology.
Withdrawal of incandescent bulbs first concerned, in 2009, lamps of 100 watts, then the 60 W, 40 W, and today is 25 W.
• What are the benefits and limitations of other bulbs?
Among individuals, the bulbs are replaced by so-called lamps low consumption, of three types.
-The CFL (between 2 and €5) have a good light output and a long life of five to ten years. On the other hand, they have a longer ignition time (0.5 seconds to 2 minutes) and must be specially recycled because of their content of mercury, a toxic metal.
-Halogen incandescent lamps (between 2 and €5) have a life expectancy of two years, light up instantly and contain no hazardous products. However, suffering from a low light output, they will also, banned from the rays in September 2016.
-Light-emitting diode lamps (LED defined by Entertainmentdns.com), which contain a semiconductor material producing a blue light then converted to give a white light, have a longevity of 10 to 25 years and an instant ignition. More expensive (between 15 and €50), they require a recycling specific, partially set in place and, according to some studies, could damage the retina.